Bilingual education-term paper

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  1. Bilingual education term paper
  2. Bilingual Education
  3. Understanding Bilingual Education 2: Analyzing Types of Bilingual Education - Papers & Essays
  4. Bilingual Education Essay
  5. Bilingual Education Research Paper Example - paperapcom

He reports that he learned English quickly, and "by the end of my first school year, I was among the top students" de la Pena, , p. But de la Pena had de facto bilingual education: Had he stayed in Mexico, he would have been in the fifth grade, but when he came to the US, he was put in grade three! His knowledge of subject matter was superior to the other children in the class and he was already literate in Spanish, thanks to his education in Mexico.

This helped make the input he heard comprehensible and provided a shortcut to English literacy. Cases like these provide strong support for the principles underlying bilingual education and are confirmed by numerous empirical studies showing that those who have a better education in their primary language excel in English language development research reviewed in Krashen, I discuss two such reports here. Did LA students "take to immersion"? Anyone glancing at the headline and opening paragraph of an article appearing in the Los Angeles Times on January 13, would get the impression that Proposition was a clear success.

The headline proclaimed: "L. The reporter conducted only! Other teachers said that they had to "water down" core subjects. This is just what one would expect would happen. Children will pick up conversational language with any kind of program. No comparison was made with conversational English spoken by children in bilingual programs. The challenge is to help them develop what Cummins calls "academic language," the language of school. There were problems in this domain. Apparently, the headline writer did not read this far into the article.

Much of the attention was focused on Oceanside, a district that claimed to have dropped bilingual education completely. Bilingual Education Instead of English Immersion 4. Vantages 4. Disadvantages 4.

Bilingual education term paper

Immigrants are importing other tongues at record rates. Yet the vast majority of native-born Americans remain stubbornly monolingual. Our ignorance of other languages and cultures handicaps us in dealing with the rest of the world. This quote by James Crawford, expert on language policy, illustrates the permanent contradiction of the United States as a nation of both, migrants from all over the world and widespread monolingualism. When the first European settlers arrived in North America, more than languages in 15 language families could be found all over the continent.

This linguistic diversity was destroyed in the course of the westward movement during the 17th and 18th century. But North America continued to be a multi-linguistic country because of immigrants from several European states establishing their respective mother tongues. After the Declaration of Independence in , English has been promoted more intensively, but bilingualism remained part of the individual rights of American citizens. The United States US still had countless communities of different mother tongues e. German, Dutch, and Spanish. From the s to the s, the English-Only-Movement became larger, and programs for Americanization were enforced as a response to the immigration waves.

The Anglo-Saxon race gained more dominance and English was associated with a growing patriotism. In that time, the idea of the melting pot arose.

Bilingual Education

In the s and s, supporters for English as the official language of the US as well as civil rights activists for anti-discrimination gained influence. On this historical basis, the role of bilingual education, with focus on English as a second language for Hispanic children in school, will be presented in this paper. After a theoretical introduction, I examine the arguments for and against the bilingual education by balancing previous research on this issue.

Then I will analyze the problems in this field and the language legislation in the US. For a better understanding of the importance of bilingualism in the US, I will refer to the interest groups, the differences between the states, and to the issue of identity [3].


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To conclude, I will focus on English and Spanish as world languages and try an outlook on the future of the multicultural US [4]. Bilingualism is the ability to speak two languages. There is a difference between individual and social bilingualism as well as between instrumental and integrative bilingualism. Individual bilingualism means the bilingualism of one person, while social bilingualism refers to a bilingual society e. Canada or Switzerland. If one learns a second language only for utility, than the bilingualism is instrumental.

Understanding Bilingual Education 2: Analyzing Types of Bilingual Education - Papers & Essays

An integrative bilingualism stands for the will of a person to integrate into a new society by learning its language as a second language. Hispanics in the US have several reasons for learning English [5]. There are three dimensions of this: political, economic and social reasons. The major economic reason is English being the key for upward socioeconomic mobility [6]. These activities make the writing process very motivating for the students, despite the fact that initial screening showed strong critical issues in this area Firpo Later on, the students uploaded their cartoons on Facebook LI.

LO group also, in order to share them in the social networks. The activities carried out with the support of technologies, especially those in which students developed content, achieved big success among students. The collected data on networked interactions show that students participated actively in the activities. LO project is divided into two phases: in phase one, before defining the course objectives, data had to be collected on the basis of the linguistic and communicative abilities put into use at school by students of non-Italian origin.

These students typically cannot be classed as immigrants who have recently arrived in Italy. Two tools were used: a language test and linguistic biography. The tests were given to all fifth-year, primary school students at I. Sampierdarena in Genoa during June The qualitative and quantitative analyses in phase one enabled us to design the LI. LO course according to the learners' needs Firpo and Sanfelici In phases two and three the first and the second editions of the course , the quantitative and qualitative analyses were repeated at the beginning and the end of the course.

LO language test was used both to assess students' entry knowledge as well as to monitor the progress of those who had taken part in the first edition of LI. LO, comparing the sample of the Hispanophone students who had followed the course with the sample of Italian students. Linguistic biographical data helped to provide a picture of learners' school and language history, as well as the sociolinguistic background.

Sampierdarena at the beginning of the course February and at the end May In this article, we will not focus on the statistical analysis of the data generated by the LI. LO language test Firpo and Sanfelici , but it might be useful to introduce very briefly the results of the linguistic tests in the two phases. In the first phase, the data collected helped to establish the level of the students both personally and linguistically in order to define the objectives and modality of a bilingual course.

Fifty-six students participated in the research 20 Italian and 30 Hispanophone and they were nearly 10 years old. As regards language, the mean scores of the linguistic test recorded by Italian students were higher than those achieved by Hispanophones. However, for Hispanophone students, the scores were the highest in Italian as a language of study.

In fact, in the correlation between the scores in the two languages, tests in Italian had higher mean scores than those in Spanish. This result supports the hypothesis that the students under examination are not balanced bilinguals, but that they use their language of origin only in family circles and do not possess academic proficiency in it. Furthermore, in phase one, a questionnaire linguistic biography was used to collect information about the computer competences and interests of the students. The questionnaire consisted of two parts:.

In this article, we provide a view of the general results of the second part of the questionnaire. As seen in Table 1, almost all of the students have a computer, but only half have a mobile device. Most of them use technologies to play, chat and download. Students of this school seem very far from using the Web 2. What do you do with the computer? What do you do with the mobile device? In conclusion, the analysis of learners' needs in the first part showed, on the one hand that the Hispanophone students are not balanced bilinguals.

On the other hand, they do not use technologies to study. On the basis of this, LI. LO was designed as a bilingual course with teaching materials both in Spanish and Italian. The course objective was to develop the language of study through the exploitation of lexis with the aid of ICT.

LO course was conducted. In both phases, a language test was used to perform both an initial and a final screening of all first year, middle school students attending I. Three groups were examined: the sample of Italian students 39 students ; the sample of Hispanophone students who followed the LI. LO course totally 30 students ; the sample of Hispanophone students who did not follow the LI. LO course totally 44 students. The results that emerged in the analysis of the linguistic test time 1 vs.

LO course helped develop the language of study through heightened ability for comprehension in both languages and in use of the language, particularly in Italian. In addition to the analysis of the effectiveness of the course Firpo ; Firpo and Sanfelici , as part of the LI. LO project, attendees were given a post-course assessment and a self-assessment6 questionnaire covering the following areas:.

Furthemore, parts 3 and 5 asked the students to reflect on their learning process by answering questions about improvement of competences that included both linguistic and study skills. Despite 30 students attending LI. LO, only 25 answered the questionnaire because participation was voluntary.


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Most of the questions attributed a score measuring the levels of satisfaction from a minimum of one to a maximum of five. Nevertheless, linguistic exercises made with the platform and the tools were considered the most useful: word dictation, text reconstruction wich was also difficult , cloze and matching exercises. Do you think you have learned a new way to use the Internet?

After LI. LO, did you change your way of using the Internet? Scores between four and five were also recorded in the self-assessment questionnaire. This would appear to suggest that these students' families take little part in their children's school life, a fact that is confirmed by teachers, who point out the lack of parental participation.

However, those who did complete the questionnaire expressed their satisfaction with the LI. LO project, along with the hope that the language of origin be maintained. On the one hand, the programme aims to build a more open school community. On the other hand, it aims to open a more sensitive social context to the educational urgencies. As regards language, the results that emerged in the final analysis of data showed that the LI.

LO course helped develop the language of study through heightened ability for comprehension in both languages and in use of the language, particularly in Italian Firpo and Sanfelici As regards computer use, however, it is possible to observe how the use of technologies for the construction of multimedia products has revealed a successful choice. The participation of the students was very active and this can be considered one of the most important elements for linguistic appropriation.

Baker Ch 11, 12, Review for Final Paper

The task of transformation, which is a typical activity that develops the CALP, has been made more motivating from the use of computer programmes for the production of content. In fact, ICT and Web 2. In addition, enjoyment and motivation are very much a part of effective learning Stevick, Shezer snd Warschauer state that the Web can support both computer-mediated communication tools and language teachers in integrating Web resources into the language classroom.

Furthermore, ICT can captivate learners' interest, increase personal discovery, as well as generate enthusiasm and the desire to learn McDougald, The Web offers a very big amount of authentic materials for language learning texts, videos, images, sound reconding, etc. During geography lessons, e. LO's students could virtually travel to their countries of origin simply by using Google Maps or Google Earth. They had found their relatives' homes and this, for instance, was an excellent motivation to search for more information and to share findings and ideas with the community.

The final data, therefore, allow following two future research paths. The first one is related to cognition, and it concerns the activities used for the development of CALP. The second, more interesting from the point of view of language learning, involves the validity of the paradigm that sees the use of technologies for the production of content as a motivating tool, even in the long term. In conclusion, the use of ICT has changed our conventional way of learning and proposes the need to rethink education in terms of a more current context. According to the previous statement, LI.

LO aims to be an experimental research-activity addressed to minority languages and, generally, disadvantaged students. On the basis of our findings, it is hoped that foreign language teaching moves towards the development of linguistic-communicative abilities in the language of study and a more balanced bilingualism both for non-Italophone students and, in the future, for all students in Italian schools, with the objective of creating schools -and the citizens they produce -that embrace plurilingualism and interculturalism.

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Bilingual Education Essay

Arthur, J. Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. London: Sage Pubns Ltd. Bransford, D. How people learn: brain, mind, experience and school. Washington D. C: National Academic Press. Bonaiuti, G. Fondamenti di Didattica.

Objectives of bilingual education

Teoria e Prassi dei dispositivi formativi. Roma: Carocci. Coonan, C.

Bilingual Education Research Paper Example - paperapcom

I principi base del CLIL. In Paolo Balboni Ed. Fare CLIL. I quaderni della ricerca 14, Torino: Loescher Editore. Cummins, J. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, Dreambox Five benefits of blended learning.


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Dudley-Evans, T. Development in English for Specific Purposes. A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Firpo, E. LE, Vol. L'italiano per lo studio e la lingua d'origine. LO: un progetto bilingue per la scuola secondaria di primo grado. Lingu ggi Giscel Ed. Educazione linguistica democratica. A trent'anni dalle Dieci Tesi. Milano: Franco Angeli. Gruba, P. In Davies, A. Eds , The Handbook of Applied Linguistics, London: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Lea, M. Staff feedback: an academic literacies approach. Stierer Eds.

Open University Press.