Encryption research papers

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  1. A novel algorithm for thermal image encryption. - PubMed - NCBI
  2. Research and Whitepapers
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Each time it receives this message, it will reinstall the same encryption key, and thereby reset the incremental transmit packet number nonce and receive replay counter used by the encryption protocol. We show that an attacker can force these nonce resets by collecting and replaying retransmissions of message 3 of the 4-way handshake.

By forcing nonce reuse in this manner, the encryption protocol can be attacked, e. In our opinion, the most widespread and practically impactful attack is the key reinstallation attack against the 4-way handshake. We base this judgement on two observations. First, during our own research we found that most clients were affected by it.

Second, adversaries can use this attack to decrypt packets sent by clients, allowing them to intercept sensitive information such as passwords or cookies. Decryption of packets is possible because a key reinstallation attack causes the transmit nonces sometimes also called packet numbers or initialization vectors to be reset to their initial value. As a result, the same encryption key is used with nonce values that have already been used in the past.

In turn, this causes all encryption protocols of WPA2 to reuse keystream when encrypting packets. In case a message that reuses keystream has known content, it becomes trivial to derive the used keystream.

This keystream can then be used to decrypt messages with the same nonce. When there is no known content, it is harder to decrypt packets, although still possible in several cases e. English text can still be decrypted. In practice, finding packets with known content is not a problem, so it should be assumed that any packet can be decrypted. As a result, even though WPA2 is used, the adversary can now perform one of the most common attacks against open Wi-Fi networks: injecting malicious data into unencrypted HTTP connections. For example, an attacker can abuse this to inject ransomware or malware into websites that the victim is visiting.

Against these encryption protocols, nonce reuse enables an adversary to not only decrypt, but also to forge and inject packets. Moreover, because GCMP uses the same authentication key in both communication directions, and this key can be recovered if nonces are reused, it is especially affected.

Note that support for GCMP is currently being rolled out under the name Wireless Gigabit WiGig , and is expected to be adopted at a high rate over the next few years. The direction in which packets can be decrypted and possibly forged depends on the handshake being attacked. Simplified, when attacking the 4-way handshake, we can decrypt and forge packets sent by the client.

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A novel algorithm for thermal image encryption. - PubMed - NCBI

Finally, most of our attacks also allow the replay of unicast, broadcast, and multicast frames. For further details, see Section 6 of our research paper. Note that our attacks do not recover the password of the Wi-Fi network. They also do not recover any parts of the fresh encryption key that is negotiated during the 4-way handshake.

Our attack is especially catastrophic against version 2. Here, the client will install an all-zero encryption key instead of reinstalling the real key. This vulnerability appears to be caused by a remark in the Wi-Fi standard that suggests to clear the encryption key from memory once it has been installed for the first time. When the client now receives a retransmitted message 3 of the 4-way handshake, it will reinstall the now-cleared encryption key, effectively installing an all-zero key.

This makes it trivial to intercept and manipulate traffic sent by these Linux and Android devices. The following Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE identifiers were assigned to track which products are affected by specific instantiations of our key reinstallation attack:. Note that each CVE identifier represents a specific instantiation of a key reinstallation attack.

Although this paper is made public now, it was already submitted for review on 19 May After this, only minor changes were made.

Research and Whitepapers

As a result, the findings in the paper are already several months old. In the meantime, we have found easier techniques to carry out our key reinstallation attack against the 4-way handshake. With our novel attack technique, it is now trivial to exploit implementations that only accept encrypted retransmissions of message 3 of the 4-way handshake. This was discovered by John A. Van Boxtel.

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As a result, all Android versions higher than 6. The new attack works by injecting a forged message 1, with the same ANonce as used in the original message 1, before forwarding the retransmitted message 3 to the victim. Please cite our research paper and not this website or cite both. You can use the following example citation or bibtex entry:. Mathy Vanhoef and Frank Piessens.

We have made scripts to detect whether an implementation of the 4-way handshake, group key handshake, or Fast BSS Transition FT handshake is vulnerable to key reinstallation attacks. These scripts are available on github , and contain detailed instructions on how to use them. We also made a proof-of-concept script that exploits the all-zero key re installation present in certain Android and Linux devices. This script is the one that we used in the demonstration video. It will be released once everyone has had a reasonable chance to update their devices and we have had a chance to prepare the code repository for release.

We remark that the reliability of our proof-of-concept script may depend on how close the victim is to the real network. If the victim is very close to the real network, the script may fail because the victim will always directly communicate with the real network, even if the victim is forced onto a different Wi-Fi channel than this network.


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Yes there is. And a big thank you goes to Darlee Urbiztondo for conceptualizing and designing the logo! No, luckily implementations can be patched in a backwards-compatible manner. This means a patched client can still communicate with an unpatched access point AP , and vice versa. In other words, a patched client or access point sends exactly the same handshake messages as before, and at exactly the same moment in time.

However, the security updates will assure a key is only installed once, preventing our attack.

So again, update all your devices once security updates are available. Finally, although an unpatched client can still connect to a patched AP, and vice versa, both the client and AP must be patched to defend against all attacks! Changing the password of your Wi-Fi network does not prevent or mitigate the attack.

So you do not have to update the password of your Wi-Fi network. Instead, you should make sure all your devices are updated, and you should also update the firmware of your router. Nevertheless, after updating both your client devices and your router, it's never a bad idea to change the Wi-Fi password. Yes, that network configuration is also vulnerable.

So everyone should update their devices to prevent the attack! I use the word "we" because that's what I'm used to writing in papers. In practice, all the work is done by me, with me being Mathy Vanhoef. My awesome supervisor is added under an honorary authorship to the research paper for his excellent general guidance. But all the real work was done on my own. So the author list of academic papers does not represent division of work :. Any device that uses Wi-Fi is likely vulnerable.

Contact your vendor for more information, or consult this community maintained list on GitHub. First, the FT handshake is part of Additionally, most home routers or APs do not support or will not use client functionality. In other words, your home router or AP likely does not require security updates. Instead, it are mainly enterprise networks that will have to update their network infrastructure i. That said, some vendors discovered implementation-specific security issues while investigating our attack.

For example, it was discovered that hostapd reuses the ANonce value in the 4-way handshake during rekeys. Concretely this means that, even if your router or AP does not support Contact your vendor for more details. Finally, we remark that you can try to mitigate attacks against routers and APs by disabling client functionality which is for example used in repeater modes and disabling Additionally, update all your other client devices such as laptops and smartphones. If one or more of your client devices is not receiving updates, you can also try to contact your router's vendor and ask if they have an update that prevents attacks against connected devices.

Currently, all vulnerable devices should be patched. In other words, patching the AP will not prevent attacks against vulnerable clients. Similarly, patching all clients will not prevent attacks against vulnerable access points. That said, it is possible to modify the access point such that vulnerable clients when connected to this AP cannot be attacked. However, these modifications are different from the normal security patches that are being released for vulnerable access points!

So unless your access point vendor explicitly mentions that their patches prevent attacks against clients, you must also patch clients.


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  7. It's possible to modify the access point router such that connected clients are not vulnerable to attacks against the 4-way handshake and group key handshake. Note that we consider these two attacks the most serious and widespread security issues we discovered. However, these modifications only prevent attacks when a vulnerable client is connected to such a modified access point.

    When a vulnerable client connects to a different access point, it can still be attacked. Technically, this is accomplished by modifying the access point such that it does not retransmit message 3 of the 4-way handshake. Additionally, the access point is modified to not retransmit message 1 of the group key handshake. The hostapd project has such a modification available. They are currently evaluating to which extend this impacts the reliability of these handshakes. We remark that the client-side attacks against the 4-way handshake and group key handshake can also be prevented by retransmitting the above handshake messages using the same previous EAPOL-Key replay counter.

    The attack against the group key handshake can also be prevented by letting the access point install the group key in a delayed fashion, and by assuring the access point only accepts the latest replay counter see section 4. On some products, variants or generalizations of the above mitigations can be enabled without having to update products. For example, on some access points retransmissions of all handshake messages can be disabled, preventing client-side attacks against the 4-way and group key handshake see for example Cisco. When working on the final i. In a sense I was slacking off, because I was supposed to be just finishing the paper, instead of staring at code.


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